Graureiher – engl. grey heron (Ardea cinerea)

Der Graureiher oder Fischreiher ist eine Vogelart aus der Ordnung der Schreitvögel

Körperlänge von 90 bis 98 Zentimeter Wiegt zwischen 1 und 2 Kilogramm. Die Flügelspannweite beträgt zwischen 175 und 195 Zentimeter. Die Männchen sind im Durchschnitt etwas größer.

Das Gefieder des Graureihers ist auf Stirn und Oberkopf weiß, am Hals grauweiß und auf dem Rücken aschgrau mit weißen Bändern. Er hat schwarze Augenstreifen sowie drei lange schwarze Schopffedern, die einen Federbusch bilden, eine dreifache schwarze Fleckenreihe am Vorderhals sowie schwarze Schwingen. Die drei langen Vorderzehen sind am Stelzenbein weit auseinander gespreizt und verhindern das Einsinken in den weichen Untergrund.

Der Abflug wird oft mit einigen Sprüngen eingeleitet. Graureiher fliegen mit langsamen Flügelschlägen und bis auf die Schultern zurückgezogenem Kopf und einem s-förmig gekrümmten Hals. Nur während des Abflugs und bei der Landung ist der Hals vorgestreckt. Beim schnellen Gehen ist eine balancierende Halsbewegung zu beobachten. Während der Nahrungssuche schreiten sie in der Regel langsam mit vorgestrecktem Hals.

Graureiher sind gleichermaßen an Süßgewässern, an Flussmündungen sowie in Küstenregionen zu Hause. Ihre Ansprüche an ihren Lebensraum sind relativ gering. Sie benötigen eine Nähe zu Gewässern mit Flachwasserzonen, verhältnismäßig große Beute und vier bis fünf Monate, in denen die Gewässer nicht zufrieren. Entsprechend findet man sie an Seeufern, Flüssen, Überschwemmungszonen, Schilfgürtel, Sümpfen, Teichen. Weideflächen, die sich in einiger Entfernung vom nächsten Gewässer befinden, werden ebenfalls genutzt.

Der Graureiher sucht seine Nahrung in der Regel alleine. Die Nahrungsgründe können sich in unmittelbarer Nähe zum Nistplatz befinden, liegen aber gelegentlich in beträchtlicher Entfernung von diesem.

Ruhig stakst der Graureiher mit gesenktem Kopf und gekrümmtem Hals langbeinig durch das seichte Wasser. Er sticht blitzschnell nach kleineren Fischen, Fröschen, Molchen, Schlangen und Wasserinsekten. Er frisst auch Ratten und Schermäuse, die er – wie auch die anderen Nahrungstiere – im Ganzen verschlingt. Auf Wiesen wartet er stocksteif stehend auf Feldmäuse und verzehrt gelegentlich auch Eier und Jungvögel.

Graureiher erreichen ihre Geschlechtsreife in der Regel erst im zweiten Lebensjahr.

Das Gelege besteht aus vier bis fünf Eiern, der Legeabstand beträgt in der Regel zwei Tage. Die Brutdauer beträgt zwischen 25 und 26 Tagen. Die Jungvögel schlüpfen asynchron. An der Fütterung der Nestlinge sind beide Eltern beteiligt. Bis zum 14. Lebenstag werden die Nestlinge gehudert, erst ab dem 20. Tag werden die Jungvögel alleine gelassen. Mit etwa 30 Tagen sind sie in der Lage, auf dem Brutbaum auf andere Äste zu klettern, und mit etwa 50 Tagen sind sie flugfähig.

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